1. might make easy younger and older workers

1. Background of the Study

The importance among employees in an organization is to be
responsible for their own careers (Greenhauset?al., 2010). This change of individualization has occurred along with
a decline in combined agreements for employees. Therefore, academic interest
has begun to focus on how employees proactively figure their careers and
consult personal agreements (Bal et?al.,
2012). Research on particular deals, or i-deals, have exposed
that individuals who proactively negotiate individual agreements turn
intosupplementary motivated, committed and performing (Rosen et?al., 2013). Moreover, study from an organizational point of view on
the increasing individualization of occupation is absent. This is surprising,
given the strong increase in interest on outcomes of individual employee
negotiation. At present, it is unknown whether this individualization of human
resource management actually improves organizational performance.

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Researches on the impacts of individualization on the
employee level have shown that relationships with outcomes are contradictory
and fluctuate greatly among studies (bal et?al.,
2012).In addition, the individualization is chiefly helpful when
it is in line with other aspects in the organization (De leedeet?al., 2007). For this reason, the labor force is aging all over the
universe. Similarly, it has turn into more difficult to retain older workers
because many older workers leave the workforce early (Wang and shultz, 2010). It is imperative because of the increasing age variety in
the place of work. The organizations implement practices allow older workers to
maintain their productivity, as performance may be decreasing after the age of
40–45 (Ng and Feldman, 2008). Individualized human resource management might make easy
younger and older workers to discussion individualized agreements to augment
their performance and give to overall performance of the organization. The
Dhaka is the capital and most important job sector in Bangladesh. A small-scale
representative study will carry out among some industries for the relationship
between individualized human resource practices with organizational
performance.

1.1 Objectives of the study

·        
To find
out the statistical relation between age of the employee and variable that
indicate the performance of organization.

·        
To
investigate the relationship between age of employee and availability of
individualized human resource management for the purpose of organizational
performance.

·        
To
investigate the relationship between age of employee and actual use of
individualized human resource management for the purpose of organizational
performance.

 

2. Methodology

2.1
Sample and procedure

The Employers Work Survey will be a study of employment
arrangements in organisationsin Dhaka City. The sample size would more than 30
for-profit as well as non-profit organisations counting two or more employees.
Because, this will be part of a small scale study on employer policies and
conditions, the survey included various other questions. The sample will be
selected according to stratified sampling based on sector and organization
size. Organizations will be approached by mail and telephone to participate in
the research at the establishment level.

Respondents (company owners, management team members or
human resource managers) will participate through filling out either a
paper-and-pencil or a digital questionnaire. It will be deemed appropriate to
ask company owners or human resource managers to act as organizational
representatives and to fill out the survey because they would be aware of the
policies of their organization, as well as the extent to which individualized human
resource management practices would be actually used (Arthur and Boyles, 2007).The 33% of the respondents will directors or owners,
33%?were human resource managers, 33% establishment managers and 34% will
another function in the organizations. The 40% of the organizations will
for-profit firms, 40% non-profit and 20%?will both for-profit and non-profit
activities.

2.2
Measures

Availability of individualized human
resource management was measured by asking respondents
for development (education of employees), work schedules (working hours of
employees) and pay arrangements (salary of employees) to which in their
organization different agreements could be made with individual employees.
Responses could be provided on a four-point scale (1?=?not available at all; 4?=?available
to a great extent).

Use of individualized human
resource management  was measured by asking respondents to indicate
the extent to which in their organization supervisors actually negotiated
individualized agreements with employees (1?=?not at all; 4?=?to a very great
extent).

Forty-five years is generally considered to be the age after
which employees are regarded as older workers and from that age experience
increasing problems with their (physical) abilities to do their jobs.

2.3
Control variables

In the analyses, a range of factors will influence the
outcome variables (Gong et?al., 2009). Education will be measured (using dummy coding) by the
percentage of employees who had lower education, vocational education and
higher education. Gender was measured as the percentage of male employ.
Moreover, we will be controlled for the percentage of employees with a
temporary contract and the percentage of employees working part time to rule out
alternative explanations, such as that turnover rates are influenced by the
percentage of employees with a temporary contract. Furthermore, the sector will
be controlled by using dummy coding. The sectors are industry, service,
government, education, health care and other sectors.

2.4 Analysis

For the analysis of the data the Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS) software was used. It is generally used to find out a
result of the statistical social data.

3.
Results and Discussion

3.1 Descriptive statistics of different factors
of organizational performance

The table 3.1
represents a summary picture of the relationship between age of the respondent
and sickness of the employee, year of experience, satisfaction level of wage,
sector wise employee, etc. From this table, it can be said that the young
employees are free from sickness. In addition, the employees who are the range
of year from 21-25, 26-30 and 31-35 are absence from sickness. In the contrary,
the employees whose age above 40 years is high sick than others.

The year of experience of the employee
less than 3 years is the highest in number in the range from 31 to 36. Because,
the job market of Bangladesh is highly competitive and most of the people get
job when they reach in age of around 30. When the age of employees reaches
above 40 then they are more experienced in the job market.  

The satisfaction wage level of the
employee is high in the entry level. But when the age is increased then the
level of satisfaction of wage is decreased. The data is collected from
different kinds of respondents such as educational institution, service, heath
care and others. The highest number of respondents is in the service sector.

Table
3.1: Descriptive statistics of different
factors of organizational performance

 

 

Age of the Respondent

21-25 years

26-30 years

31-35 years

36-40 years

Above 40 years

Sickness
of the employee

Absence

16

15

10

5

0

Low

2

4

9

9

10

Medium

0

0

0

2

               9

High

0

0

1

3

14

Year
of experience

Less
than 3 years

3

8

18

12

8

3-5
years

0

5

5

10

5

More
than 5 years

0

0

0

11

13

Satisfaction
level of wage

Yes

16

15

12

5

3

No

0

0

9

16

18

Sector
wise  employee

Educational
Institution

1

3

7

8

7

Service

14

11

12

5

9

Health
Care

0

0

0

1

2

Others

2

4

7

8

1

 

 

 

3.2
The Pearson correlation between age of employee and
availability of individualized HRM

The
Pearson correlation between age of respondent and availability
of individualized human resource management of development is -.780 and in
the same way, the correlation between age of respondent and availability of individualized human resource management of
work schedule -.894, that implies the variables change in the opposite
direction. On the contrary, Pearson correlation between the correlation between
age of respondent and availability of individualized
human resource management of pay arrangement is .447 that indicates
positive correlation. The two stars indicate that degree of confidence is high.

The
correlation between availability of individualized
human resource management of development and availability
of individualized human resource management of work schedule is .828
that indicates positive correlation. In the contrary, the correlation between availability of individualized human resource management of
work schedule and availability of
individualized human resource management of pay arrangement is -.666
that indicates negative correlation.

Table 3.2: Correlation between age of employee and availability of individualized HRM

 

 

Age of Respondent

Availability of individualized HRM of Development

Availability of individualized HRM of Work schedule

Availability of individualized HRM of Pay arrangement

Age
of Respondent

Pearson
Correlation

1

-.780**

-.894**

.447**

Sig.
(2-tailed)

 

.000

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

Availability
of individualized HRM of Development

Pearson
Correlation

-.780**

1

.828**

-.581**

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.000

 

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

Availability
of individualized HRM of Work schedule

Pearson
Correlation

-.894**

.828**

1

-.666**

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.000

.000

 

.000

N

100

100

100

100

Availability
of individualized HRM of Pay arrangement

Pearson
Correlation

.447**

-.581**

-.666**

1

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

 

N

100

100

100

100

**. Correlation is
significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

3.3 The Pearson correlation between age of employee and use of individualized HRM

The
Pearson correlation between age of respondent and use of
individualized human resource management of development is .908 and in
the same way, the correlation between age of respondent and use of individualized human resource management of work
schedule .737, that indicates the strong positive correlation between
the variables. On the contrary, Pearson correlation between the correlation
between age of respondent and use of individualized
human resource management of pay arrangement is -.243 that signifies
negative correlation between variables. The one star indicates that degree of
confidence is not so high.

The
correlation between use of individualized human resource
management of development and use of
individualized human resource management of work schedule is .663 that
indicates positive correlation. In the contrary, the correlation between use of individualized human resource management of work
schedule and use of individualized human resource
management of pay arrangement is -.478 that indicates negative correlation.
Here, two stars signifies strong negative correlation between the variables.

Table 3.3: Correlation between age of employee and availability of individualized HRM

 

 

Age of Respondent

Use of individualized HRM of Development

Use of individualized HRM of Work schedule

Use of individualized HRM of Pay arrangement

Age
of Respondent

Pearson
Correlation

1

.908**

.737**

-.243*

Sig.
(2-tailed)

 

.000

.000

.015

N

100

100

100

100

Use
of individualized HRM of Development

Pearson
Correlation

.908**

1

.663**

-.478**

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.000

 

.000

.000

N

100

100

100

100

Use
of individualized HRM of Work schedule

Pearson
Correlation

.737**

.663**

1

-.501**

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.000

.000

 

.000

N

100

100

100

100

Use
of individualized HRM of Pay arrangement

Pearson
Correlation

-.243*

-.478**

-.501**

1

Sig.
(2-tailed)

.015

.000

.000

 

N

100

100

100

100

**. Correlation is
significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is
significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

 

Conclusion

In the
conclusion, it can be said that the young employees are free
from sickness. But, the employees whose age above 40 years is high sick than
others. The year of experience of the employee less than 3 years is the highest
in number in the range from 31 to 36. But when the age is increased then the
level of satisfaction of wage is decreased. The
Pearson
correlation between the correlation between age of respondent and availability of individualized human resource management of
pay arrangement is .447 that indicates positive correlation. In
addition, the correlation between availability of
individualized human resource management of development and availability of individualized human resource management of
work schedule is .828 that indicates positive correlation.