1. all knowledge becomes suspect. Epistemology: Epistemology is

1. What is philosophy? How it is
love of knowledge

Introduction:

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Philosophy is the study of universal and elementary
problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind,
and language. In history, “philosophy” covers all the knowledge that
can be astronomy, medicine, and physics. In the modern era, philosophy became
separated in different academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology,
linguistics, and economics, art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained
part of philosophy.  For example,
Newton’s 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became
classified as a book of physics.

“The
rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics”
(WordNet)

How
it is love of knowledge:

Philosophy is a composed of two parts: ‘Philos’
(love) and ‘Sophia’ (wisdom) which means love of wisdom. The first part of the
word is easy to understand which means “attraction to”. When we love something
we place that thing at the height of likeness. The one’s who love wisdom will
consider it valuable to look for. According to ancient Greeks wisdom is beyond
the reach of human; it did not come naturally to the human beings. Ancient
Greeks believed that wisdom was not approachable to the common people.

2.
Branches of philosophy     

The
five branches of philosophy are:

1.             Metaphysics (the true nature of
reality)

2.             Epistemology (the true nature of
knowledge and belief)

3.             Politics (how humans function
within a society)

4.             Ethics (values and decision making
process)

5.             Esthetics (the nature of beauty and
art)

 

Metaphysics:

It
is the study of the true nature of reality from which we perceive and give meaning
to our world. Metaphysics deals with the things which exists but do not have
any physicality e.g god, beauty. The degree to which our metaphysical worldview
is correct is the degree to which we are able to comprehend the world, and act
accordingly. Without this firm foundation, all knowledge becomes suspect.

Epistemology:

Epistemology
is the branch of acquiring knowledge. It determines a proper method of
evaluation and explains how we think. Without epistemology, we could not think.
 It is concerned with how our minds are
related to reality. It is needed in order to use and obtain knowledge of the
world around us.

 

 

Ethics:

Ethics
is the branch in which we categorize our values and pursue them. Ethics is a must
for human life. It is important in deciding a path of our actions and without
it our actions would be random and aimless.

Politics:

Politics
tells you how a society must be set up and how one should act within a society.
The requirement for a political system is that the individuals within that
system are allowed to fully function according to their nature. A human being
cannot survive in an environment where reason is ineffective, and will thrive
or starve to a degree in proportion to the effectiveness of reason. This means
that the prime goal of a political system must be the preservation and enabling
of the faculty of reason. Reason does not function under coercion.

Esthetics:

Esthetics
is the study of art. It is a mean of expressing the ethics previously learnt. It
deals with the questions of beauty taste and expression.

 

3.
How philosophy forms the basis of gaining knowledge in any field:

Philosophy forms the basis of gaining knowledge in a
way that it provides openness to ask questions which enhance existing knowledge
and also helps to improve critical thinking skills. Philosophy is really about
clarifying concepts and finding logical implications. The ancient philosopher
Socrates initiated this approach to gain knowledge. He was famous to ask
questions from his students. In philosophy we analyze the nature of knowledge
and relate it to different concepts like truth, belief, values, ethics etc.
Philosophy brings about the problems and also highlights the path for the
solution of those problems.  Physicists,
chemists, and biologists are interested in debating over which scientific
entities really exist (such as electrons), and philosophers debate over how we
should answer this question.

4.
Is philosophy only subjective?

In
philosophy, the distinction between objective and subjective normally refers to
judgments and claims which people make. Objective judgments and claims are
assumed to be free from personal considerations, emotional perspectives, etc.
Subjective judgments and claims, however, are assumed to be heavily (if not
entirely) influenced by such personal considerations.

 

Thus,
the statement “I am six feet tall” is considered to be objective
because such precise measurement is presumed to be uninfluenced by personal
preferences. Moreover, the accuracy of the measurement can be checked and
re-checked by independent observers. In contrast, the statement “I like
tall men” is an entirely subjective judgment because it can be informed
solely by personal preferences – indeed; it is a statement of personal
preference.

 

5.
Philosophy is the mother of all sciences:

Philosophy which literally means the love of
knowledge is the study of thinking and knowledge itself. Philosophy
familiarizes you with fine distinctions in the context and meaning of words
required to give informed opinions on even the most subtle and intricate of
sciences. It helps you develop and nurture the keenness and openness of mind
necessary for a deep and wholesome appreciation of life and the world. Indeed
there is no intellectual discipline more apt to be addressed as the mother of
all sciences. This was once a universally recognized fact in every famed
University in the world. You needed to first get your Language and Philosophy
basics sorted before you could even think of acquiring deep knowledge in any
field of study. The model of classical education followed up until the
twentieth century was designed to comprise of two basic components, the Trivium
and the Quadrivium at the primary level. The idea behind this was that without
being sufficiently proficient in the use of Language, Logic and Mathematics,
one cannot hope to progress to the more sophisticated fields of study.

 

 

 

 

 

6.
Philosophy and science what is the connection?

The
connection between science and philosophy has continued for thousands of years.
Today, it has not only been conserved but is also growing significantly
stronger. The extent of the scientific work and the social significance of
research have attained immense proportions. For example, philosophy and physics
were at first naturally interconnected, particularly in the work of Galileo,
Descartes, Kepler, Newton, Lomonosov, Mendeleyev and Einstein, and generally in
the work of all scientists with a broad outlook.

 

At
one time it was commonly held that philosophy was the science of sciences,
their ultimate ruler. Today physics is considered as the queen of sciences.
Both views hold a definite measure of truth. Physics with its tradition, the
specific objects of study and vast range of exact methods of observation and
experiment applies an exceptionally fruitful influence on all or almost all
spheres of knowledge. Philosophy may be called the “science of
sciences” maybe in the sense that it is, in effect, the self-awareness of
the sciences and the source from which all the sciences draw their world-view.

 

As
a whole, philosophy and the sciences are equal partners supporting creative
thought in its explorations to achieve generalizing truth. Philosophy does not
substitute the specific sciences and does not control them, but it describes
general principles of theoretical thinking, with a method of cognition and
world-view. In this sense scientific philosophy reasonably holds one of the key
positions in the sy1stem of the sciences.