1.0 water resources and the way these resources

1.0 introduction

This is an introductory Chapter, which has
incorporated the background to the Problem, the Statement of the Problem,
Research Objectives and Research Questions. This Chapter also includes the
significance and scope of the study, limitation, delimitation ….

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 1.1 Background
to the Problem

Water is indispensible for sustainable development –
at the center of political, economic, social and environment. It has vital role
to achieving poverty reduction including growth, public   health, food security, manage the
environment, and create jobs opportunity. Progress in each of the three
dimensions of sustainable development; social, economic and environmental ? is
bound by water resources and the way these resources are managed to provide services
and benefits (WWAP 2015).

The
acknowledgment by the UN General Assembly, in 2010, of water and sanitation as a
human right, and MDG ultimate goal of providing for everyone with access to
these vital services. The report brings welcome news which 2.3 billion people are
gaining access to an improved drinking water source and 1.9 billion to an
enhanced sanitation facility. However  more
than 748 million people do not use an improved source of drinking water and 2.5
billion do not use an improved sanitation facility. Similarly, Potable water coverage in Sub-Saharan
Africa remains below 60 percent of the population (WHO and UNICEF, 2014).

Ethiopia is one of the nation’s endowments by water
resource on the world having
12 river basins, about 14 major lakes; it is to be expected 40million cubic
water.  The annual surface water runoff is estimated
to be 122 billion m3. Besides, the country has an estimated 2.6 billion m3 of
usable ground water. However, Ethiopia has facing those challenges like the dynamics
of population growth, low potable water access and sanitation, low
productivity, structural bottlenecks, dependence on unreliable rainfall and  the country and
historically low investment in water infrastructure (Mr.Abiy Girma (MOWE)  (2013).

 Access potable water supplies and sanitation
services in Ethiopia are among the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Access for
urban areas was 91.5 %( with 0.5km), while the access to rural is about 68.5%1
(within 1.5 km) in the year 2010. On the other hand (ADF) (2005) report shows
that 33% of rural water services in Ethiopia are non-functional. The average safe water coverage in ANRS is xx% which
is xx% and xx% in urban and rural areas respectively. Water Aid Ethiopia in ANRS (2012) report stated that
non Functional rat is very critical problem. It is only 44% of the schemes are
functional whereas the remaining 56% is either completely non-functional (13%)
or functional with disrepair (43%) under the current management arrangement.

In
debark woreda north Gondar zone , there
are 32 on spot springs; two hands dug wells and one water supply system by
gravity called Fessa water supply which makes up the water supply of
the Woreda 55.9 % of the total population.

 

The first comprehensive declaration which addressed
the requirement for public participation in decision-making in water management
was made in (1992), The Dublin International Conference on Water and the
Environment established guide principles for managing potable water resources
with exclusively concerned with public participation. The basic principle
states that “water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy makers at all
levels”, Women play a central role in the provision, management and
safeguarding water.

Among Several challenges of sustainability of potable
water supply is Poor management system, low community participation,
non-functionality scheme (Harvery, 2008).  Furthermore, potable water supplies from
improved sources does not forever guaranty that the water is secure. The
existing operation and maintenance practices are reactive and are exercised
post project the system interrupts and stops providing services, and the system
may be maintained and operation is depending on the availability of materials,
spare parts, and capacity of the operators and care takers.

Social and economic changes are transforming all the
perspectives of active participation of communities. But the challenges that it
is how the communities deal with these changes depends not the service delivery
the maintenance of infrastructure and economic development, it also involving  new ways, working cooperatively, improving
networks, mobilizing existing skills, and putting innovative ideas into action.
The participation outcomes are not only jobs opportunity, income and
infrastructure but also strong functioning communities, better able to manage
change for sustainable life improvement (UNICEF, 1992).

Experiences  in
the region of  the  ANRS particularly north Gondar zone  proved that 
involving  the  beneficiaries have not responsible   for the
water  resources  sustainable, to overcame the challenge will create
sense  of 
ownership,  legitimacy  and 
protection  of infrastructure,
involving the community in protecting and safeguarding of the water sources is one
of the alternative ways of managing the water resources in rural areas. Hence,
the motivation of the present study is to understand how the involvement of
people in decision concerning the environment where they live contributes to sustainability
of community based management of water supply facilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2 statements of the problem

Potable Water management can be considered as to
ensuring efficiency, maximizing equity and reducing environmental damage
through the promotion of greater community participation.  There 
is an evidence that community 
participation  in  water 
resource  management have significant  impact 
on sustainable  use  of  the  resource, 
and is  the  key to water 
scheme  to remain  operational 
over  a  long 
period  of  time. The motive of  community 
participation  in  water 
supply  schemes  are 
to  share  certain 
proportion  of managing   cost, 
increase  project  effectiveness 
and  efficiency  and 
increase  community empowerment.

  The Current potable water management practices are
faced different challenges; to realize the issue of supplying potable water, at
all levels of governments, local and international NGOs, for the last decay invest
millions of capital in the ANRS including Debark woreda to overcome the problem
through implementation of water supply facilities.  However, constructing water supply systems
alone would not eliminate all problems. In the Debark Woreda north Gondar Zone, the average
distance travelled to collect water is 46 minutes. On the other hand, the
average water consumption is 7.2 liter/day per person for only 48 percent of
the population while the remaining 52 percent consumes less than 7.2
liter/day/person. These figures are far below the average daily water
consumptions of 45 litter/person per day set by WHO and the 20 litter/person
per day of Millennium Development Goal of universal access program (ITAB
Consult, 2011).

The major
challenges  due to lack  of 
funds  for  operation 
and  maintenance,   inappropriate technology; poor construction;
lack of  community  involvement & subsequent  sense 
of  ownership and  professional 
support  services. The basic
reason is implementing activities without adequate involvement and
participation of stakeholders including local communities in planning,
management and decision making at all levels on issues related to potable water
supplies.

Consequently, the community are suffering under water
born disease specially children, physical , economic, social and human right
under critical challenges due to lacking potable water supply and sustainable
scheme. The governments lacked the human capacity and financial resource to
manage and sustain them; so the solution was  that 
involving  the  beneficiaries 
 to  make  create
sense  of 
ownership,  legitimacy  and involving the community in protecting and
safeguarding. In Practical    sustainable rural potable water use at post
construction phases is critical challenge for debark Woreda. It will be useful
to have sufficient information before launching large investments in rural
water supply works.

Moreover, there is no significant empirical research
conducted in the study in Debark woreda which identified the financial,
technical, social, ecological, and institutional confront that community
participation in managing potable water supply. Furthermore challenges of
managing potable water and the roles of community   are not
well identified and recognized. In Amahara 
region, including  the  study 
area,  there  are 
no  well  thought-out 
and familiar  research
result,  which  can  disclose  the extent of 
community  participation  in managing potable water supply facilities
in the region. So, this is one of the research gaps worth studying putting  stress on 
the  behavioral  and different 
social , technical,  economic  and institutional challenges  that influence community participation in
potable water  management . It is honestly
believed that the result of the study can be used to put into practice policies
and strategies that foster community participation in water resource management
to cope up with the current water insufficiency problem in the country. It
sounds like significant of the study.

1.3. Purpose of this study

In response to the challenge of sustainability, this
study to investigate the functionality of water points installed with its
support and to better understand how more effective, efficiency and equitable
potable water management practices. To identify the major challenges potable
water management System; the contribution of community active participation in
managing rural potable water supply facilities in the study area. Furthermore
determine the relationship between Community Participation and performance of
the schemes related long lasting service. Debark
woreda was selected for this study because it highly degraded; low moisture
conservation and the topographic up and down, so there is limited or difficult
to water scheme develop. even though the last   decade, 
water  points  were 
installed,  but  governments 
lacked  the  human capacity and financial resource to
manage and maintain them. The solution was to
encourage  community  ownership 
of  water  points, 
including  their  long -term maintenance and  there are several non-governmental
organizations intervening on up scaling water sanitation and hygiene services
in the rural areas of debark with no more interventions.

 

 

 

 

 

1.4. Objectives

 1.4.1. General objective the general objective of the study is to identify the
challenges and prospects of potable water management and the role of community participation in the study area the following specific objectives;

 1.4.2. Specific
objectives

 To identify the
major challenges related to potable water management System.

To evaluate the level of community participation in
managing rural potable water supply facilities in the study area.

To examine the relationship between Community Participation
and performance of the schemes related long lasting service.

     1.5
research questions

1. What are the major problems related to potable
water management system?

2. What is the extent of community participation in
managing rural potable water supply facilities?

3. What are the relationship between CP and the
performance of the schemes?

1.6. scope/delimitation of the study

The researcher covered the debark woreda north Gondar
zone, These areas where the researcher sources of data, therefore this being
the case, the  sample  of this 
study was all local societies . The researcher  is  aware  the institution  which 
could  provide  information  concerning the practices and challenges  of community participation in managing potable
water supply; the  researcher  limited rural 
water schemes  the management
activity post-project sustainability. 

1.7. Limitation

for  the  course 
of  manner  this 
study  the  researcher 
confront  some  difficulties.  as follows:

Firstly, Cost, since the researcher had to go to the
field using transportation, some  respondents  demanded 
money,  there  was  a  need  to  print 
some  documents  that  helped  in 
writing  this  report 
also  cost  of 
pictures  that  had 
to  be  taken 
by  the  researcher.

Secondly, Poor respondent cooperation, some
respondents were not cooperative to the researcher due to a number of reasons
some of them being the confidentiality of some 
data,  ignorance of the usefulness
of research work, and concentration in their daily routine duties and hence
ignoring the researcher.

Thirdly, Confidentiality, also the researcher faced
difficulties in obtaining Information

for 
example  W.E.O  were 
resistant  to  give 
records  on  how 
communities  contribute  money for projects construction rather  they give reasons that    data 
were confidential  to the
authorities.

1.8. Significant Of the Study

Most scholars their center of attention are either the
resource use or engineering aspects of water supply. Hence, the study
contributes to   knowledge, skill,
attitude and understanding of factors contributing to the failure of community
based rural water supplies. It helps the sector to develop training packages
and modules for training community participation and stockholder trainers to
improve sustainability of rural potable water supplies.

In 
addition,  the  findings 
of  the  study 
improve  policy  formulation and implementation  by  all
levels water resource management development organization other  development 
partners  to enhance
sustainability of sector investments and  to 
improve  sustainability  of 
community based and managed water supplies. This research will
contribute to the better understanding of problems and factors related to
sustainable water supply system. The study will serve as reference for those working
in the planning and design works of water projects, also helped the researcher
to be exposed practically to the field of community participation in
development activities and other related matters and subsequently boost her
knowledge on the study.

1.9 definition of term 

Community  ownership – A 
perception  of  ownership  by 
the  user  community 
of  a  water facility

Community
participation–A cross-section
of the community participate in the development process of a project. A broad
community support for the implementation of the project. Community
participation must continue indefinitely.

Sustainability-The indefinite provision of a water service with
certain agreed characteristics over time.

Water
management- A process of
formulating and implementing, course of action taking into account, economical,
environmental operating to achieve social objective.

Water
resource management-
water resource development, utilization, conservation, probation and control
that incorporates physical, social, economic, as well as environmental interdependency,