1.0 is heated up making a full cycle.

1.0   Introduction

The aim of this assignment is to complete an audit of a
typical central heating system typically using a boiler to provide heat energy
to heat water that circulates a closed system of radiators. The systems
described must be open and closed with the specific information how they work
and the necessary calculations to ensure they are working to the maximum
efficiency while being safe to operate. The two systems have the same function
however they achieve the results in different ways with some upsides and some

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2.0 Components of central heating systems

Most central heating systems have radiators
which heat up the air in the given room, the radiator size does vary depending
on the size of the room, this can be calculated by using BTU’s; this
calculation is important because if the wrong size of radiator is used for a
room then there is the risk of not enough heating being applied making the room
too cold or too much heating being applied and a room being too hot. The
radiators work by having hot water flowing through them and the metal which the
radiator is made of conducting that heat onto the air which heats it up, the
heated air then flows and pushed the cold air under the radiator where it is heated
up making a full cycle. With newly built
households, there is the option to have under floor heating which works by
having spiraling plastic tube being placed under the concrete layer of the
floor; the heat naturaly will travell upwards covering the lower grounds where
the radiators aren’t as effective. The main pipes are made out of either
plastic or copper, both of which can conduct heat efficiently, these pipes can
come in different sizes varrying from 8mm to 35mm in diamater. Closed boiler
systems have a expansion relief valve which is used to release pressure from
the system incase it gets too high, the boiler usually has an indicator to how
much pressure is in the system. The header tank is part of the open boiler
system and it allows for the water to be released from the system incase of it
overheating; this is usually located in the loft or somewhere which is
elevated. The expansion vessle is responsible for keeping a closed boiler
system from bursting

2.1 Open boiler system

This system consists of different parts which work together
to make the system function correctly, the components are: the hot water
storage (usually a cylinder), the cold water storage (usually a cistern) and
the necessary pipe work that leads connects everything up accordingly so that
the water will flow accordingly from both sources. The open boiler
system works by having a tank in an elevated place of the building (the loft)
which has water constantly added to it to compensate for any leaks or the evaporation
of water. The tank contains a float valve which constantly feeds water if there
is a loss of it; this means that there is no need for the user to do anything
regarding if the tank is full. There are a number of problems with this type of
system, one being the float valve can encounter issues over time, this could
lead to the valve shutting and over time the tank would lose the water inside
of it and there wouldn’t be enough water for the pump to pump so the whole system
would stop working. Corrosion is a big issue which happens in the water pipes,
it commonly happens with the cold fill pipe where the corrosion clogs it up
causing which over time would stop the system from working. One more issue
would be where the water comes through the open vent pipe and into the F and E
tank when the pump starts operating, this can cause corrosion to occur inside
of the pipes as there would be constant oxidisation applied. (APHC, -) (Bryant, 2017) (APHC, -) (Hamworthy,

2.2 Closed boiler system

There are a couple of types of closed boiler systems being
the conventional boiler, a combi boiler or a system boiler. The main difference
is the complexity of the system and the cost; both the conventional and the
system boilers are much more expensive which is why they are the less popular
option. The combi boiler is inexpensive and the system isn’t complex making it
easier to install when compared to the other closed boiler systems and it works
by heating water on demand making it highly
energy efficient as there is no hot water cylinder needed. The main parts of
the bailer are pump, pressure gauge, expansion vessle and the filling loop. The
fact that it heats water on demand makes it so that it uses less fuel making it
much more energy efficient. The fact that this system is simple makes it easier
to install. Because this sytem uses a pump, it struggles to keep up with more
than one source needing water, this means that if 2 taps are running at the
same time, there will be lower pressure in both, this is only the case with the
cheaper combi boilers as ther is only one pump. If the boiler stops working,
the household will not have acces to hot water or heat from the radiators which
means that the boilr needs regular maintenance to stop any faults within the
boiler. (APHC, -) (Wickes, 2000-2018)