· is to determine the pattern of tourism

·        
Introduction

This
report is based on destination Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country and
its capital city is Harare. The main languages spoken are Shona, English and
Ndebele. According to Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa (RETOSA)
(2017), the population of Zimbabwe is 15,2 million and is 390 757km2.
Agriculture, mining and tourism are contributing to the economy of the country
to a greater extent. It tourist’s arrivals have grown since 1964 from 198 000
visitors to over 2,4 million (RETOSA, 2017). Visitors in Zimbabwe are mostly
from South Africa, America and Europe. In destination Zimbabwe they offer
products and services in accommodation, accessibility, amenities, attractions,
activities and ancillary services. They would want to increase the market share
and this enables them to increase their sales and make profits.

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1.   
Explanation
of the principles of destination analysis

·        
Explain the purpose of
destination analysis

According
to Monish Limbasia (n.d), the purpose of destination analysis is to determine
the pattern of tourism and develop the tourism in the country. The tourist
behaviour can also contribute to get conclusions that cannot be gained by the
study of resources and market. Destination analysis helps in managing the
resources of the destination and also helps in positioning the destination.
Destination analysis helps to consider the carrying capacity of the
destination. Middleton and Hawkins Chamberlain (1997) defines carrying capacity
as “the level of human activity an area can accommodate without the area
deteriorating the resident community being adversely affected or the quality of
visitor’s experience declining”.

·        
Explain the principles of
data collection and analysis

For
destination Zimbabwe the tourism data can be collected either at national level
by the National Tourism Organisation (NTO) and for Zimbabwe it’s Zimbabwe
Tourism Authority (ZTA) or at regional level which is Southern African
Development Committee (SADC) and Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern
Africa (RETOSA). There are two types of researches which are primary data
collection which uses surveys or direct observations. This will be expensive,
it gives much and accurate information. Secondary data collection can be
conducted by collecting information from electronic devices and different
sources of documents. This is cheap, not accurate and does not give much
information.

The
data which is collected must be valid that is it should be relevant and
acceptable. Also it must be reliable. The data collected must be current that
is existing or occurring at the moment. It must be sufficient enough to be
used.

Tour
operators and travel agents also help in data collection of the destination.
They provide number of tour bookings and packages sold to the tourists and
number of tourists that bought the package.  Also accommodation records played a role in
data collection and the records will consist of local, regional and
international accommodation occupants.  

·        
Explain how to assess the
risks associated with a tourist destination

Risk

Impact

Likelihood

Floods

Roads and bridges were
washed-out and some crops were damaged by heavy rains (floodlist.com, 2017).

Average

Cyclones

Leading to the loss of
lives, property, livestock, crops and infrastructure like Cyclone Eline in
2000.

Low

Earthquakes

Large-scale mining mainly
in the Midlands and changes in Kariba Dam water levels were behind the
occurrence of earthquakes in 2016 (Debra Matabvu, 2017).

Average

Demonstrations

Leading to violence around
the cities between protestors and the police.

High

Crime

In Zimbabwe pick-pocketing,
bag snatching, theft and carjacking are common.

High

 

·        
Explain the importance of
the accessibility of a tourist destination

Accessibility
enables tourists to have access to a destination of their choices safely and
fast. Accessibility can either be virtual or physical access whereby tourists
travel to different destinations regardless of their age or disabilities.

Transport
plays an important role of providing links to different destination. Modes of
transport which are used in Zimbabwe are air, road and rail transport. Road
transport; tourists use taxes, luxury coaches to visit different places of
attraction in the destination and it is cheap. Some tourists use road transport
from their generating place to Zimbabwe mostly tourists from surrounding
countries. Railway transport is effective and it helps to transport heavy
tourism goods to and from Zimbabwe. It is also cheap and some people use it to
travel around the destination. Also air transport, it is fast, efficient and
secure. It can make tourists from different generating regions to have easy
access to destination Zimbabwe.

Also
internet plays a critical role to access the destination. It provides accurate
information about the destination and bookings of flights and accommodation can
be done easily.

2.   
Audits
of destination

·        
Identify the market and
competitive environment of a destination

Tourists’
arrivals into Zimbabwe mostly come from Africa hence become the largest source
market for Zimbabwe. They mostly visit for leisure, business and visiting
friends and relatives. According to Zimbabwe Tourism Authority (ZTA) (2016),
arrivals from Africa increased by 11% to 380 790 from 343 644 arrivals in 2015
(Tichaona Kurewa, 2016). Suitable roads and good air networks between Zimbabwe
and South Africa made South Africa the greatest source market for tourist
arrivals in Zimbabwe. Zambia and Malawi also followed as the market for tourist
arrivals in Zimbabwe. Globally, Europe is the second largest source market with
27000 arrivals followed by Americas with 22000 arrivals in Zimbabwe (Tichaona
Kurewa, 2016) (see appendix).

Destination
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country so they do not provide cruise facilities as
compared to South Africa it’s neighbouring country which has cruise facilities
and this will lure more tourists into their destination.

·        
Research the factors that
affect tourists’ choice of destination

The
factors that affect tourists’ choice of destination include the destination
attractiveness.

§  The
ability of destination Zimbabwe to meet the needs and wants of the visitors.
Accommodation services are offered to tourists either serviced whereby catering
is provided or non-serviced which is self-catering. They also offer activities
like mountain climbing, skiing. There are many attractions in Zimbabwe which
includes natural attractions like the Victoria Falls, Chinhoyi Caves and
man-made attractions like the Lake Kariba, Great Zimbabwe. In accessibility
there is air transport and surface transport which helps in the movements of
tourists and goods from one place to another. The modes of transport in
Zimbabwe are air, road and rail transport.  Amenities are available which includes
shopping malls and health services. Lastly, ancillary services which include
travel insurances and airport transfers. This makes tourists to have a
comfortable stay in Zimbabwe.

§  The
ability of destination Zimbabwe to provide health and safety of the tourists.
Tourists are being told about risks in the destination and they would promise
the visitors would be protected against the risks.

§  In
destination Zimbabwe, products and services are priced according to their
quality and it would be acceptable to the tourists.

The
purpose of visit of the tourists can affect tourists’ choice of a destination.
Some people visit destination Zimbabwe for leisure and they would take part in
different activities and viewing different attractions. Some will be travelling
for business like meetings, incentive travel, conferences and exhibitions. Also
some people visit friends and relatives in Zimbabwe and they do not use most tourism
productions like accommodation.

·        
Analyse the features and
strengths of different destinations (access, attractions, accommodation,
activities, amenities and ancillary)

In
Zimbabwe there are 3 ways of transportation which are road, rail and air
transport. In air transport there scheduled flights and the low cost carries
like the Fastjet. There are 13 airports in Zimbabwe including 3 international
airports. Roads also helps in linking different destinations. There are road
ports in most cities and the one in Harare is the largest. Taxis and coaches
also takes tourists to different places around Zimbabwe. There is also railway
transport; high speed and luxurious trains are there to help in the
transportation of people and tourism goods and also railway stations are
available around Zimbabwe with planned schedules.

In
Zimbabwe there are natural attractions like Chinhoyi Caves, also man-made
attractions like the Lake Kariba and cultural attractions like the Great
Zimbabwe Ruins. Zimbabwe has the iconic attraction which is the Victoria Falls.
Some attractions are designed for tourism purposes for example galleries,
museums. Other attractions are designed for events like for arts (HIFA, music
concert), business (carnival, sanganai expo) and some are designed for culture
like cultural villages.

Accommodation
in Zimbabwe ranges from 5-star hotels to basic budget accommodation and it can
either be serviced whereby all tourists’ facilities are provided or
non-serviced accommodation where it is self-service accommodation. The
accommodation sector in Zimbabwe includes hotels, lodges, villas bed and
breakfast and many more.

Activities
are there to make tourists enjoy their stay in Zimbabwe. There is an adventure
activity where tourists would be exploring remote places, mountain climbing and
many more. Also water activities that includes swimming, fishing, canoeing.
They are other activities such as skiing, horse and elephant riding.

Amenities
are facilities that support tourism in the destination like shopping malls,
health services. Ancillary services include travel insurance, airport transfers
and providers of tourists’ information.

Zimbabwe
as a destination it has its strengths. It has the iconic attraction which is
the Victoria Falls. Zimbabwe is rich in wildlife and many national parks and
this promotes ecotourism in the destination.

·        
Analyse the stage of
destination in the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)

RW
Butler proposed the Tourism Area Life Cycle which consist of six stages which
are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and
decline. Exploration is the first stage and it is when a destination is
discovered and tourism will be based on natural and cultural attractions. The
second stage is the involvement stage when the government and the locals become
involved in tourism. Then the development stage, a destination will be
receiving large numbers of tourists that may exceed its carrying capacity. In
the consolidation stage, the growth of tourism slows but the carrying capacity has
been exceeded by the number of tourists. In the stagnation, that’s when tourism
causes social, environmental and economic problems. In the final stage, tourism
will either decline or rejuvenate. When tourism facilities are replaced by
non-tourism activities that will be the decline but when changes are made in
favour of tourism then it rejuvenates (see appendix).

Destination
Zimbabwe is at the development stage because large numbers of visitors are
coming into Zimbabwe. Tarisai Mandizha states that according to the ZTA (2016),
overall tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe are 450 572 in 2016. There are large
foreign hotels like Holiday Inn. Cultural, natural and man-made attractions have
developed and been marketed like the Lake Kariba, Khami Ruins, Nyanga
Mountains.  

Tourism
development benefited the destination in many ways which includes; it generates
employment, infrastructure development and foreign currency increases. However,
the developed is not good for the destination because it brings foreign
cultures and behaviours.

·        
Assess the risks and
development needs with a tourist destination

In
Zimbabwe there is a risk in public transportation. Rail transport is poorly
maintained. Taxis are available in major cities only and usually they do not
carry visitors whose destinations are out of the city. In rural areas they are
facing food shortages. In many areas they are experiencing power cuts. Also
when viewing wildlife, tourists should maintain a safe distance and they should
always have a tour guide to guide them.

The
development needs with destination Zimbabwe includes the role of government. Sometimes
government support the industry by offering duty relief to tourism suppliers
and tour operators. The government should also support the tourism facilities
that include accommodation, entertainment, transportation and shopping
facilities. Also it should improve in accessibility through the development of
new technology and the construction of highways and railways.

·        
Make viable recommendations
for the development of a destination which meet the organisational objectives

According
to Rangarirai Muzapu and Mavis Sibanda (2016), Zimbabwe needs a policy
framework that addresses its economic challenges and image so as to reverse the
declining tourism activities and the government should take a leading role in
marketing and promotion of tourism brand through competitive multiple means.
Tourism products like ecology and cultural tours should be modified.
Maintenance of rail system should improve and also the construction of
highways. Current technology facilities should be developed.

3.   
Analysis
of tourism destination development

·        
Determine the factors to be
considered when developing a destination

The
important factor to be considered when developing a destination is the
environment which includes its appearance, cleanliness and designs of
structures and buildings. The stakeholders’ views have the ability to develop a
destination. Cultures of the local people is also an important factor in
destination development. The natural environment of a destination also helps in
developing a destination. History of a place helps in developing a destination
and it makes a destination popular (Sheard and Hudson, 2015).

·        
Assess the impact of
technology on destination development

Transportation
is part of the technology whereby it facilitates in the movement of visitors
from one place to another. It also helps in the movements of goods from one
place to another. In Zimbabwe there are three modes of transport which are air,
railway and road transport.

Technology
increased in the internet and helps in marketing. It also provides tourists
with quick and accurate information such as making reservations, dining and
activities options (Anon, 2017). The telephones also allow tourists to have
contact with their service providers. Communication technology makes it easy
for the airline and travellers to communicate for example to communicate their
benefits and selling them to their customers and also to enable payment
collections and reservations. 

·        
Assess the impact of ethnic
tourism, culture, ecotourism and sustainability

The
impact ethnic and culture tourism determines the relationship between tourism
and culture in Zimbabwe. Culture and ethnic tourism contributed to the
destination competitiveness and attractiveness. According to Isdore Guvamombe
(2011), experiencing different ways of life, discovering new food and customs
and visiting cultural sites have become leading motivations for travel and as a
result, a crucial source of revenue and job creation. Places like Great
Zimbabwe, Victoria Falls has been promoted with the help of the link between
tourism and culture. Revenue is generated through cultural activities like
dances from the Shona and Ndebele people and attractions like the National
Ruins.

According
to Kerry Butters (2011), Zimbabwe is one of a few African countries which have
helped to drive ecotourism to become the fastest growing sector on the
continent. The local people are allowed by The Community Areas Management
Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) to take control of the wildlife
in their area. Tourists who come and take part in watching the wildlife brings
in revenue and the natural environment is preserved. Ecotourism helps the
community with the development on infrastructure, revenue is generated and
community projects can be successful. One of the areas in Zimbabwe practising
ecotourism is the Vhimba area in Chimanimani district.

According
to the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (2017), sustainable tourism is
the tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social
and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the
environment and host communities. In Zimbabwe there are many national
heritages, landscapes, historical sites, cultural places which are well
maintained and peace and stability also helps to promote sustainable tourism in
the destination. All this minimises negative economic, social and environmental
impacts.

·        
Assess the reliability,
suitability and frequency of transport for different geographical regions

Transport
provides links between tourism generating places and destination places. In
Zimbabwe there are three modes of transport which are air, road and railway
transport. Sea transport is not reliable in Zimbabwe because it is a landlocked
country. In destination Zimbabwe there are 13 airports including three
international airports. Zimbabwe is also supported by other Southern African
Development Committee (SADC) airport systems like the OR Tambo airport in South
Africa.

In
destination Zimbabwe there are roads which connect to attraction places and to
generating areas for example tourists from South Africa. There are primary
roads which links to and from neighbouring countries which are South Africa,
Zambia, Botswana and Mozambique. The roads are called R1, R2, R3. There are
also secondary roads which links the major city centres within the country.
These road networks are suitable and reliable in the destination.

Rail
transport in Zimbabwe is very cheap. There are high speed and luxurious trains
which has first class, second class and the economy class. The railways links
to and from different destinations around Zimbabwe like Harare, Mutare,
Bulawayo. Rail stations are available around Zimbabwe and they provide well
organised schedules which are very important in promoting transportation
facilities for tourists.

·        
Conclusion

Destination
Zimbabwe’s products include the 5A’s which are accommodation, attraction,
accessibility, amenities, activities and also ancillary services. Its strength
is in the iconic attraction which is the Victoria Falls. Zimbabwe is rich in
wildlife hence the growth of ecotourism. Ecotourism is supported by the
Community Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resource (CAMPFIRE) and
jobs are created for the locals. There are various cultures in Zimbabwe and
this promotes culture and ethnic tourism in Zimbabwe. Destination Zimbabwe does
not provide sea transport because it is a land locked country.

In
Zimbabwe they should consider the maintenance of trains and railways in order
to promote the rail transportation and heavy tourism goods will be carried
easily. Also health tourism should be addressed.